The holy grail of artificial intelligence is the creation of artificial “general” intelligence. That is, an artificial intelligence that is capable of every sort of perceptual and cognitive function that humans are and more. But despite great optimism in the early days of artificial intelligence research, this has turned out to be a very difficult thing to create. It’s unlikely that there is a “silver bullet”, some single algorithm, that will solve the problem of artificial general intelligence. And an important reason why, is that the human brain, which gives us our intelligence, is actually a massive collection of layers and modules that perform specialised processes.
The squiggly stuff on the outside of the brain, the neocortex, does a lot of the perceptual processing. The neocortex sits on a lot of “white matter” that connects it to the inner brain structures. Different parts of the inner brain perform important processes like give us emotions, pleasure, hold memories, and form the centre of many “neural circuits”. Even though the structure of the neocortex is quite similar in all areas over the brain, it can be pretty neatly divided up into different sections that perform specific functions like: allow us to see movement, recognising objects and faces, provide conscious control and planning of body movements, and modulating our impulses.
Until we see an example of an intelligent brain or machine that works differently, we should probably admit that replicating the processes, if not the structure, of the human brain is what is most likely to produce artificial general intelligence. I’ll be making posts that discuss specifically some different approaches to artificial intelligence. These posts will mostly be on the high-level concepts of the algorithms and their relationship to “intelligence”. Hopefully these posts will be generally accessible and still interesting to the technically minded. I think there is benefit in grasping important concepts that underlie human intelligence that could direct the creation of intelligent machines.
If people are still looking for that silver bullet algorithm, they should probably be looking for an algorithm that can either create, or be generally applied to, each of these brain processes. If you know of someone that has done this, or has rational grounds for disagreeing that this is necessary, let me know. Then I can stop spreading misinformation or incorrect opinion. 🙂
To conclude with some philosophical questions, if we are successful in reproducing a complete human intelligence (and mind) on a computer, some interesting issues are raised. Is an accurate simulation of a human mind on a computer that different from the “simulation” of the human mind in our brains? And how “artificial” is this computer-based intelligence?
These questions might seem nonsensical if you happen to think that human intelligence and the mind are unassailable by computer software and hardware. Or if you think that the mind is really the soul, separate from the body. First of all, if you believe the latter, I’m surprised you’re reading this (unless you were tricked by the title :)). If you read later posts, I hope to discuss some evidence against both of these points of view in future posts, and I welcome rational counter-arguments.